March 27, 2023

Constructing an Android Automotive OS may not be a tough process by itself, however the lack of excellent tutorials makes it exceptionally exhausting. It solely will get more durable for those who don’t have at hand any specialised {hardware} like R-Automobile or Dragonboard. Nevertheless, you’ll be able to simply get a Raspberry Pi – a small ARM-powered, multi-usage laptop and an ideal candidate to run AAOS. To make the method simpler for everybody battling this type of process, on this article, I’ll clarify step-by-step construct and run the most recent model: Android Automotive OS 13. 

Let’s get began! 


To construct the system, you’ll need a Linux. You need to use WSL or MacOS (keep in mind, you want a case-sensitive file system), however pure Linux is the best choice. 


As within the earlier article, you want a Raspberry Pi 4B microcomputer, an influence adapter (or you’ll be able to energy it out of your PC with a USB cable), a reminiscence card, and a show. It’s good to have a touchscreen, however you need to use your mouse and, optionally, a keyboard if extra handy. 

One other nice-to-have factor is a USB-TTL bridge for debugging. Discover my earlier article for extra particulars on use it. 


For those who’re on the lookout for the easy approach, go to and observe the readme. There are only a few instructions to obtain, construct and create a writeable IMG file to your Raspberry. However you want a number of hours to obtain and construct it anyway. Warning! It might not begin for those who gained’t alter the show settings (see under for particulars). 

Adjusting AOSP to make it AAOS 

This undertaking is predicated on Raspberry Vanilla by KonstaT – an awesome AOSP port for Raspberry Pi. It covers every thing that you must run a pure Android in your Raspberry – an adjusted kernel, {hardware} drivers, and many others. Nevertheless, there isn’t a automotive construct, so that you must assemble it. 

There are 4 repositories in concerning AAOS – three forks primarily based on Raspberry Vanilla and one new one. 

The repository aaos_local_manifest accommodates an inventory of modified and new repositories. All vital modifications are positioned in gadget/brcm/rpi4 and gadget/brcm/rpi4-car initiatives outlined within the manifest_brcm_rpi4.xml file. Within the readme of this repository, you’ll discover steps to clone and construct the undertaking.

The subsequent repository, aaos_device_brcm_rpi4, accommodates three parts: 

The primary and most vital is to make the most of the brand new rpi4-car undertaking and take away conflicting gadgets from the bottom undertaking.  

Within the file, there’s a new line  

$(name inherit-product, gadget/brcm/rpi4-car/ 

to incorporate a brand new undertaking. 

Within the file, the product attribute is modified to automotive,nosdcard, and all customized overlays are eliminated, together with the overlay listing subsequent to the file. 

Within the manifest.xml file, the android.{hardware} HAL ({Hardware} Abstraction Layer) is added. 

The second factor is to configure the construct for the display I use. I needed to set the display decision in vendor.prop and set the display density in You most likely don’t want such modifications for those who use a typical PC monitor, otherwise you want another one to your customized show. Remember that the system gained’t begin in any respect if the decision configured right here is just not supported by your show. 

The final factor accommodates my regional/language settings in I’ve determined to make use of this file, because it’s not automotive-related, and to go away it within the code to point out alter it if wanted. 

The primary half 

Probably the most main modifications are positioned within the aaos_device_brcm_rpi4_car repository. 

The file is predicated on gadget/generic/automotive/widespread/ with few modifications. 

Conditional, particular settings for the Generic System Photos are eliminated together with the emulator configuration (gadget/generic/automotive/widespread/config.ini) and the emulator audio package deal (android.{hardware}.audio.service-caremu)

As an alternative, you want a combination of vendor-specific and board-specific parts, not included within the widespread/automotive makefile designed for an emulator. 

Android Automotive OS is strictly coupled with an audio engine, so that you must add an automotive audio management package deal (android.{hardware}[email protected]) to make it work, even for those who don’t wish to join any audio system to your board. Additionally, AAOS makes use of a particular show controller with the power to make use of two shows on the similar time ([email protected]), so that you must embody it too. The subsequent half is SELinux policy for actual boards (not an emulator). 

BOARD_SEPOLICY_DIRS += gadget/generic/automotive/widespread/sepolicy 

Then that you must add permissions to a couple pre-installed, automotive-oriented packages, to permit them to run within the system or consumer areas. 

PRODUCT_COPY_FILES += gadget/google/cuttlefish/shared/auto/preinstalled-packages-product-car-cuttlefish.xml:$(TARGET_COPY_OUT_PRODUCT)/and many others/sysconfig/preinstalled-packages-product-car-cuttlefish.xml

The subsequent element is EVS  – Exterior View System launched to AAOS 13. Even for those who don’t actually wish to join a number of cameras to the system thus far, you need to embody the default implementation of the element and configure it to work as a mock. 

DEVICE_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += gadget/google/cuttlefish/shared/auto/overlay
PRODUCT_PACKAGES += android.{hardware}[email protected]
PRODUCT_COPY_FILES += gadget/google/cuttlefish/shared/auto/evs/init.evs.rc:$(TARGET_COPY_OUT_VENDOR)/and many others/init/init.evs.rc
BOARD_SEPOLICY_DIRS += gadget/google/cuttlefish/shared/auto/sepolicy/evs

The final half is to regulate variables for a system when working. You set two system properties straight within the makefile (to permit a compelled orientation and to allow the AVRCP Bluetooth profile).


Ultimately, you override the next system variables, utilizing predefined and customized overlays.


Usually talking, PRODUCT_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS permits us to overwrite any worth from a property file positioned within the supply code. For instance, in our case the overlay root listing is gadget/brcm/rpi4-car/overlay, so the file gadget/brcm/rpi4-car/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml overwrites properties from the file frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Let’s dive into properties modified.

  • frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml file:
  • config_useVolumeKeySounds disables utilization of {hardware} quantity keys, as they aren’t current in our setup,
  • config_voice_capable permits data-only mode, as there isn’t a risk to make a voice name from our board,
  • config_sms_capable disables SMS capabilities for a similar motive,
  • networkAttributes and radioAttributes units the system to make use of WiFi, Bluetooth and ethernet connections solely, as there isn’t a GSM modem onboard,
  • config_longPressOnPowerBehavior disables long-press on an influence button, as there isn’t a energy button related,
  • config_disableUsbPermissionDialogs disables USB permission display, because it shouldn’t be used within the AAOS,
  • config_defaultUiModeType permits the automotive launcher by default,
  • config_defaultNightMode permits evening mode because the default one.
  • frameworks/base/packages/SettingsProvider/res/values/defaults.xml file:
  • def_wifi_on permits WiFi by default,
  • def_accelerometer_rotation units the default orientation,
  • def_auto_time permits acquiring time from the Web when related,
  • def_screen_brightness units the default display brightness,
  • def_bluetooth_on permits Bluetooth by default,
  • def_location_mode permits purposes to make use of location companies by default,
  • def_lockscreen_disabled disables the lockscreen,
  • def_stay_on_while_plugged_in units the gadget to remain enabled on a regular basis.
  • packages/apps/Automobile/LatinIME/res/structure/input_keyboard.xml file units the default foreground shade of the default keyboard, because the default one is just not very readable. Set keyTextColorPrimary and textColor parameters to regulate it.
  • packages/apps/Automobile/LatinIME/res/values/colours.xml units colours or image characters on the default keyboard and the letter/symbols change on the underside proper nook.
  • packages/apps/Automobile/SystemUI/res/values/colours.xml units the background shade of the standing bar fast settings to make the default font shade readable.
  • packages/apps/Automobile/SystemUI/res/values/config.xml hides brightness settings from the highest bar, because it doesn’t work with out a particular drivers for the show.
  • packages/apps/Settings/res/values/config.xml file:
  • config_show_call_volume disables quantity management throughout calls,
  • config_show_charging_sounds disables charging sounds,
  • config_show_top_level_battery disables battery degree icon.
  • packages/modules/Wifi/service/ServiceWifiResources/res/values/config.xml permits 5Ghz help for the WiFi.
  • packages/companies/Automobile/service/res/values/config.xml disables working a devoted software when the system begins up or a driver is modified.

You’ll be able to learn extra about every of these settings within the feedback within the authentic information which these settings got here from.

The final repository is aaos_android_hardware_interfaces . You don’t want it, however there’s one helpful property hardcoded right here. In Android, there’s a idea referred to as HAL – {Hardware} Abstraction Layer. For AAOS, there’s VHAL – Automobile {Hardware} Abstraction Layer. It’s accountable, amongst others, for HVAC – Heating, Air flow, and Air Conditioning. In our setup, there isn’t a car {hardware} and no bodily HVAC, so you utilize android.{hardware}[email protected] whose default implementation is positioned beneath {hardware}/interfaces/automotive/car. To vary the default models utilized by HVAC from imperial to rest-of-the-world, that you must alter the {hardware}/interfaces/automotive/car/aidl/impl/default_config/embody/DefaultConfig.h file.


The constructing course of for AAOS 13 for Raspberry Pi is far simpler than the one for AAOS 11. The kernel is already precompiled and there’s a lot much less to do.

Simply name these three instructions:

. construct/
lunch aosp_rpi4-userdebug
make bootimage systemimage vendorimage

On a Home windows laptop computer (utilizing WSL, after all) with the i7-12850HX processor and 32GB RAM, it takes round 1 hour and 40 minutes to perform the construct.

Making a bootable SD card

There are two choices – with or with out the script. The script is positioned beneath gadget/brcm/rpi4 listing and linked in the principle listing of the undertaking as The script creates a digital picture and places 4 partitions inside – boot, system, vendor, and userdata. It’s helpful as a result of you need to use Raspberry Pi Imager to jot down it into an SD card nonetheless, it has a number of limitations. The picture at all times has 7GB (you’ll be able to change it by adjusting the IMGSIZE variable within the script), so that you gained’t use the remainder of your card, regardless of how large it’s. Apart from that, you at all times want to jot down 7GB to your card – even when you need to replace solely a single partition, and together with writing zeros to an empty userdata partition.

The choice approach is to jot down it on the cardboard by hand. It’s difficult beneath Home windows as WSL doesn’t comprise card reader drivers, however it’s handy in different working methods. All required information are constructed within the out/goal/product/rpi4 listing. Let’s put together and write the cardboard. Warning! In my system, the SD card is seen as /dev/sdb. Please alter the instructions under to not destroy your information.

OK, let’s clear the cardboard. You must wipe every partition earlier than wiping the complete gadget to take away file methods signatures.

sudo umount /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb

Now let’s put together the cardboard. This line will use fdisk to create 4 partitions and set flags and filesystems.

echo -e "nnnnn+128Mnantn0cnnnnnn+2Gnnnnnn+256Mnnnpnnnwn" | sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

The final step is to jot down information and put together the final partition.

sudo dd if=boot.img of=/dev/sdb1 bs=1M
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdb2 bs=1M
sudo dd if=vendor.img of=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L userdata /dev/sdb4
sudo umount /dev/sdb*


Android Automotive OS is a huge leap for the automotive business. As there isn’t a manufacturing car with AAOS 13 thus far, you’ll be able to expertise the long run with this handbook. What’s extra, you are able to do it with a low-budget Raspberry Pi laptop. This fashion, I hope you’ll be able to develop your purposes and play with the system simply with out a further layer of utilizing emulators. Good luck and pleased coding!