March 28, 2023


Have you ever ever needed to construct your individual Android? It’s simple in keeping with the official handbook, but it surely’s getting tougher on a Home windows (or Mac) machine, or when you’d prefer to run it on bodily {hardware}. Nonetheless too simple? Let’s construct Android Automotive OS – the identical supply code, however one other layer of complexity. On this handbook, we’ll cowl all steps wanted to construct and run Android Automotive OS 11 AOSP on Raspberry Pi 4B utilizing Home windows. The answer will not be good, nevertheless. Essentially the most principal concern is an absence of Google Providers as a result of the complete AAOS is on an open-source undertaking and Google doesn’t present its companies this fashion. However, let’s construct the open-source model first, after which we are able to attempt to face incoming points.



If you wish to run the system on a bodily system, you want one. I take advantage of the Raspberry Pi 4 mannequin B with 8GB of RAM ( By the way in which, if you wish to construct and run an emulator from the supply, it’s additionally doable, however there’s a small limitation – packaging the emulator to a zipper file, transferring it to a different laptop, and even operating it underneath Android Studio was launched in Android 12.

To energy your Raspberry, you want an influence adapter (USB C, min. 5V 3A). I take advantage of the Raspberry-official 5.1V 3A mannequin. You can even energy the Raspberry laptop out of your desktop/laptop computer’s USB port, particularly when you’re going to debug it by way of a serial connection. Examine the “If it doesn’t work” part beneath for the required {hardware}.

One other piece of {hardware} wanted is an SD card. In principle, 4GB is all you want, nevertheless, I like to recommend shopping for a bigger card to have some further house to your purposes on Android. I take advantage of 32GB and 64GB playing cards. You’ll additionally want a built-in or exterior card reader. I take advantage of the latter. 

The subsequent step is a display. It’s non-obligatory however fancy. You’ll be able to join your mouse and optionally keyboard to your Raspberry Pi by way of USB and join any show you may have by way of micro-HDMI however utilizing a contact display is way more intuitive. I take advantage of a Waveshare 10-inch display devoted to Raspberry ( The display field has a spot to screw the Raspberry too, so that you don’t want any further case. You can even purchase it with an influence adapter and a show cable.

Should you don’t purchase a bundle, ensure you have all essential equipment: micro-HDMI – HDMI cable to attach a display (Waveshare or every other), USB A – USB mini A cable to attach a contact sensor of the display, USB mini A 5V 3A adapter to energy the display.

In fact, you want a pc. On this handbook, we use a Home windows machine with at the very least 512GB of storage (the Android supply is big) and 16GB of RAM.

Software program

You’ll be able to in all probability construct every little thing in pure Home windows, however the beneficial technique is to make use of WSL. I assume you have already got it put in, so simply ensure you have the latest WSL2 model. When you’ve got by no means used WSL earlier than, see the complete handbook right here

WSL changes

The usual WSL set up makes use of a too-small digital drive and restricted RAM, so it’s worthwhile to modify it. 

Let’s begin with the disk. Be sure the WSL is shut down by operating ‘wsl –shutdown’ within the command immediate. Open Home windows Command Immediate with admin privileges and enter ‘diskpart’. Then run ‘choose vdisk file=”<path to WSL drive file>”’. For me, the trail is “C:Customers<person>AppDataLocalPackagesCanonicalGroupLimited.Ubuntu_<WSL_instance_id>LocalStateext4.vhdx”. Now you may broaden it with the command ‘broaden vdisk most=512000’. Round 300GB is sufficient for Android 11, however if you wish to play with a number of branches of Android on the identical time, you want extra space. Now you may shut the diskpart with the ‘exit’ command. Subsequent, open the WSL and run ‘sudo resize2fs /dev/sdb 512000M’. I assume you may have solely a single drive connected to the WSL and it’s seen within the Linux subsystem as /dev/sdb. You’ll be able to test it with the instructions ‘sudo mount -t devtmpfs none /dev || mount | grep ext4’. 

Now, let’s modify the reminiscence. Cease the WSL once more. Open your private home listing in Home windows and open .wslconfig file. Create it if this file doesn’t exist but. Within the file, it’s worthwhile to create a [wsl2] part and reminiscence configuration. The entire file ought to appear to be this: 

As you may see, I’ve connected 16GB to the digital machine. It’s assigned dynamically, in keeping with wants, however you should be conscious that the digital machine can take all of it, so when you permit it to eat your total RAM, it may power your Home windows to make use of a tough disk to outlive (which is able to gradual every little thing down considerably).


Constructing Android on 8 cores, 16GB RAM machine takes round 4 hours. If you wish to do it quicker otherwise you don’t have a pc highly effective sufficient at your private home or workplace, you may take into account constructing within the cloud. Easy AWS EC2 with 32 cores and 64GB of reminiscence does the job in a single hour (to obtain and construct) and prices only a few bucks.

Let’s Get Able to Rumble!!!

..or at the very least to constructing.

Extra stipulations

We’d like some software program however not a lot. Simply set up the next packages. This set of libraries means that you can construct Android Automotive OS variations 11 to 13.

sudo apt replace && sudo apt set up gcc-aarch64-linux-gnu libssl-dev bc python3-setuptools repo python-is-python3 libncurses5 zip unzip make gcc flex bison -y

Supply code downloading

Let’s create a house listing for our android and obtain sources.

mkdir android-11.0.0_r48 && cd android-11.0.0_r48
repo init -u -b android-11.0.0_r48 --partial-clone --clone-filter=blob:restrict=10M
git clone .repo/local_manifests -b arpi-11
repo sync

“repo init” will ask you for some private knowledge. It’s collected by Google. To be taught extra about optimizations right here, test this handbook: ‘git clone’ provides a customized code from Android RPI undertaking ( with drivers to your Raspberry Pi. The undertaking is nice and it’s all you want if you wish to run Android TV. To run Android Automotive OS, we’ll want to regulate it barely (see “Changes” part beneath). ‘repo sync’ will take a while as a result of it’s worthwhile to obtain round 200GB of code. When you’ve got a strong machine with an incredible Web connection, you should utilize extra threads with ‘-j X’ parameter added to the command. The default thread depend is 4. When you’ve got already synchronized your supply code with out android-rpi native manifest, it’s worthwhile to add –force-sync to the ’repo-sync’ command.


All modifications from this part can obtain as a patch file connected to this text. See the “Path file” part beneath.

Android-rpi gives Android TV for Raspberry Pi. We have to take away the TV-related configuration and add the Automotive OS one.

Let’s begin with eradicating pointless information. You’ll be able to safely take away the next information and directories:

  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/anim
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values-television
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/dimens.xml
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/types.xml
  • system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages

To take away the person discover display not wanted in Automotive OS, create a brand new file system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/packages/companies/Automotive/service/res/values/config.xml with the next content material:

<?xml model="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<sources xmlns:xliff="urn:oasis:names:tc:xliff:doc:1.2"> 
  <string identify="config_userNoticeUiService" translatable="false"></string>

To interchange the essential TV overlay config with the Automotive overlay config, modify the configuration in system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Take away:

  • <integer identify=”config_defaultUiModeType”>4</integer> <!–disable compelled UI_MODE_TYPE_TELEVISION, as there’s solely MODE_TYPE_CAR accessible now–>
  • <integer identify=”config_longPressOnHomeBehavior”>0</integer> <!–disable residence button lengthy press motion–>
  • <bool identify=”config_hasPermanentDpad”>true</bool> <!–disable D-pad–>
  • <string identify=”config_appsAuthorizedForSharedAccounts”>;;</string> <!–take away pointless entry for a shared account as there’s nothing in* now–>

… and add:

  • <bool identify=”config_showNavigationBar”>true</bool> <!–allow software program navigation bar, as there isn’t any hardwave one–>
  • <bool identify=”config_enableMultiUserUI”>true</bool> <!–allow multi-user, as AAOS makes use of background processes referred to as in one other classes –>
  • <integer identify=”config_multiuserMaximumUsers”>8</integer> <!–set most person depend, required by the earlier one–>

Additionally in system/arpi/rpi4/overlay/frameworks/base/packages/SystemUI/res/values/config.xml, take away <string identify=”config_statusBarComponent” translatable=”false”></string>.

Now let’s rename the android-rpi authentic /system/arpi/rpi4/ to /system/arpi/rpi4/ We have to modify the file a little bit bit.

Take away the next variables definitions. A few of them you’ll re-create in one other file, whereas a few of them aren’t wanted.


Take away the next invocations. We’re going to name essential exterior information in one other mk file.

  • $(name inherit-product, system/google/atv/merchandise/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • $(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
  • embody frameworks/native/construct/

In PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES take away debug.drm.mode.power=1280×720 and add the next properties. This manner you take away the TV launcher configuration and override the default automotive launcher configuration.

  • dalvik.vm.dex2oat64.enabled=true
  • keyguard.no_require_sim=true
  • ro.logd.dimension=1m

Now it’s worthwhile to fully take away the android-rpi TV launcher and add RenderScript assist for Automotive OS. In PRODUCT_PACKAGES take away:

… and add:

Create a brand new rpi4.mk4 with the next content material:

PRODUCT_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += system/generic/automotive/widespread/overlay
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, system/arpi/rpi4/
$(name inherit-product, $(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/
$(name inherit-product, system/generic/automotive/widespread/
DEVICE_PACKAGE_OVERLAYS += system/arpi/rpi4/overlay system/generic/automotive/car_x86_64/overlay

PRODUCT_MODEL := Raspberry Pi 4

Because of the license, keep in mind so as to add your self to the PRODUCT_MANUFACTURER discipline.

Now you may have two mk information – is borrowed from android-rpi undertaking and adjusted, and accommodates all modifications for Automotive OS. You’ll be able to meld these two collectively or break up them into extra information when you’d like, however remember the fact that the order of invocations does matter (not at all times, however nonetheless). 

As Android Automotive OS is greater than Android TV, we have to improve the system partition dimension to suit the brand new picture. In system/arpi/rpi4/ improve BOARD_SYSTEMIMAGE_PARTITION_SIZE to 2147483648, which suggests 2GB.

You want to apply all modifications described in too. These modifications are additionally included within the patch file connected.

Should you use the 8GB model of Raspberry Pi, it’s worthwhile to change system/arpi/rpi4/boot/fixup4.dat and system/arpi/rpi4/boot/start4.elf information. You’ll find the right information within the patch file connected or you could use the official supply: It’s in all probability not wanted for 4GB model of Raspberry, however I don’t have such a tool for verification. 

Path file 

Should you want to use all modifications described above as a single file, go to your sources listing and run ‘git apply –no-index <path_to_patch_file>’. There may be additionally a boot animation changed within the patch file. If you wish to create considered one of your individual, comply with the official handbook right here:

Now we are able to construct!

That’s the simple half. Simply run a number of instructions from beneath. Firstly, we have to construct a customized kernel for Android. ‘’ script simply configures all variables required. The primary ‘make’ command builds the true kernel picture (which may take a couple of minutes). Subsequent, construct a tool tree configuration. 

cd kernel/arpi
ARCH=arm64 scripts/kconfig/ arch/arm64/configs/bcm2711_defconfig kernel/configs/android-base.config kernel/configs/android-recommended.config
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- make Picture.gz
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="[email protected]" make broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb
ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-gnu- DTC_FLAGS="[email protected]" make overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo
cd ../..

The subsequent half is to construct the complete system. “” script units up variables and provides customized instructions to your terminal. Then you may decide the right pair of Android variations and gadgets with “lunch”. You’ll be able to run it with out parameters to see (virtually) all doable configurations. On this step, you may determine to construct a system for devoted {hardware} (eg. Dragonboard) and change between telephone/pill/TV/wearable/automotive variations of Android. The final line is an actual constructing. We will’t run simply “make” or “m”, as documented within the official handbook as a result of we have to create three particular photographs to put in writing them on an SD card and run them on Raspberry Pi. Change “X” in ‘-j X’ with the variety of threads you need to use. The default worth is the variety of logical processors in your laptop. 

supply construct/
lunch rpi4-eng
make -j X ramdisk systemimage vendorimage

I hope you may have a pleasant guide subsequent to you as a result of the final constructing takes a number of hours relying in your {hardware}. Excellent news!  If it’s worthwhile to adapt one thing and construct once more, typically you simply want the three final traces (and even simply the final one) – to supply the surroundings setup, to choose the lunch configuration, and to make ramdisk, system, and vendor photographs. And it takes hours for the primary time solely. 

Creating an SD card 

This step appears to be simple, but it surely isn’t. WSL doesn’t include drivers for the USB card reader. You need to use usbip to ahead a tool from Home windows to the subsystem, but it surely doesn’t work nicely with exterior storage with out partitions. The answer is a VirtualBox with Ubuntu put in. Simply create a digital machine, set up Ubuntu, and set up Visitor Additions. Then you may join the cardboard reader and move it to the digital machine. Should you’re a minimalist, you should utilize Ubuntu Server or every other Linux distribution you want. Remember that utilizing a card reader constructed into your laptop could also be difficult relying on drivers and the {hardware} connection kind (USB-like, or PCI-e). 

Now, it’s worthwhile to create a partition schema on the SD card. I assume the cardboard is loaded to the system as /dev/sdb. Examine your configuration earlier than persevering with to keep away from formatting your important drive or one other catastrophe. Let’s erase the present partition desk and create a brand new one. 

sudo umount /dev/sdb*
sudo wipefs -a /dev/sdb
sudo fdisk /dev/sdb

Now let’s create partitions. First, you want a 128MB energetic partition of the W95 FAT32 (LBA) kind, second a 2GB Linux partition, third a 128MB Linux partition, and the remainder of the cardboard for person knowledge (additionally Linux partition). Right here’s the best way to navigate by fdisk menu to configure all partitions.

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.37.2).
Modifications will stay in reminiscence solely, till you determine to put in writing them.
Watch out earlier than utilizing the write command.
Gadget doesn't include a acknowledged partition desk.
Created a brand new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x179fb9bc.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (0 main, 0 prolonged, 4 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (1-4, default 1): 
First sector (2048-61022207, default 2048): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (2048-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 1 of kind 'Linux' and of dimension 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): a
Chosen partition 1
The bootable flag on partition 1 is enabled now.
Command (m for assist): t
Chosen partition 1
Hex code or alias (kind L to record all): 0c
Modified kind of partition 'Linux' to 'W95 FAT32 (LBA)'.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (1 main, 0 prolonged, 3 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (2-4, default 2): 
First sector (264192-61022207, default 264192): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (264192-61022207, default 61022207): +2G
Created a brand new partition 2 of kind 'Linux' and of dimension 2 GiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (2 main, 0 prolonged, 2 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default p): 
Utilizing default response p.
Partition quantity (3,4, default 3): 
First sector (4458496-61022207, default 4458496): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4458496-61022207, default 61022207): +128M
Created a brand new partition 3 of kind 'Linux' and of dimension 128 MiB.
Command (m for assist): n
Partition kind
   p   main (3 main, 0 prolonged, 1 free)
   e   prolonged (container for logical partitions)
Choose (default e): p
Chosen partition 4
First sector (4720640-61022207, default 4720640): 
Final sector, +/-sectors or +/-sizeK,M,G,T,P (4720640-61022207, default 61022207):
Created a brand new partition 4 of kind 'Linux' and of dimension 26,8 GiB.
Command (m for assist): w
The partition desk has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition desk.
Syncing disks.

Watch out with the final partition – fdisk proposes creating an prolonged one by default, which isn’t wanted in our use case.

Should you don’t do it for the primary time on the identical card, you may even see a warning that some partition already accommodates a file system signature. You’ll be able to safely conform to take away it. 

Partition #4 accommodates a ext4 signature.
Do you need to take away the signature? [Y]es/[N]o: Y
The signature will likely be eliminated by a write command.

Now, let’s provide file programs for the primary and the final partitions. 

sudo mkdosfs -F 32 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.ext4 -L userdata /dev/sdb4

We received’t write something to the final one, because it’s for person knowledge solely and will likely be stuffed by Android through the first boot. However we have to write some information for the primary one. Let’s create a brief mount listing underneath /mnt/p1 (like “partition 1”), mount it, and duplicate the mandatory information from the Android constructed within the earlier part. It’s unusual, however we’re going to repeat information from one digital machine (WSL) to a different (VirtualBox). You’ll be able to merely mount a wsl drive as a shared folder in VirtualBox. Should you don’t see a WSL drive in your Home windows Explorer, you may map it as a community drive utilizing “wsl$Ubuntu” path

sudo mkdir /mnt/p1
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/p1
sudo mkdir /mnt/p1/overlays
sudo cp system/arpi/rpi4/boot/* /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/Picture.gz /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm64/boot/dts/broadcom/bcm2711-rpi-4-b.dtb /mnt/p1
sudo cp kernel/arpi/arch/arm/boot/dts/overlays/vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo /mnt/p1/overlays/
sudo cp out/goal/product/rpi4/ramdisk.img /mnt/p1
sudo umount /mnt/p1
sudo rm -rf /mnt/p1

Should you’re wanting on the official android-rpi undertaking handbook, there’s a completely different path for vc4-kms-v3d-pi4.dtbo file. That’s OK – they use a symbolic hyperlink we’re unable to make use of on this filesystem. 

Generally, you may see an error message when creating an “overlays” listing. It occurs sometimes, as a result of “mount” returns to the console earlier than actually mounting the drive. In such a case, simply name “mkdir” once more. Concentrate on that, particularly when you’re going to copy-paste the complete itemizing from above. 

Now, let’s copy the 2 remaining partitions. Should you’re fighting dd command (it might cling), you may attempt to copy massive *.img information from WSL to VirtualBox first.

cd <PATH_TO_YOUR_ANDROID_SOURCES_IN_WSL>/out/goal/product/rpi4/
sudo dd if=system.img of=/dev/sdb2 bs=1M standing=progress
sudo dd if=vendor.img of=/dev/sdb3 bs=1M standing=progress


You’re achieved. You’ve downloaded, ready, constructed, and saved your individual Android Automotive OS. Now you may put the SD card into Raspberry, and join all cables (ensure you join the Raspberry energy cable on the finish). There isn’t any “energy” button, and it doesn’t matter which micro-HDMI or USB port of Raspberry you employ. It’s now time to get pleasure from your individual Android Automotive OS! 

If it doesn’t work

The world will not be good and typically one thing goes terribly incorrect. Should you see the boot animation for a very long time, or in case your system crashes in a loop a number of seconds after boot, you may attempt to debug it.

You want a USB-TTL bridge (like this one to attach the right pins from the Raspberry to the USB. You want to join pin 6 (floor) to the GND pin within the bridge, pin 8 (RXD) to the RXD pin of the bridge and pin 10 (TXD) to the TXD pin of the bridge. If you wish to energy the Raspberry by way of the bridge, it’s worthwhile to additionally join pin 2 to +5V pin of the bridge. It isn’t beneficial, due to the decrease voltage, so your system may be unstable. Should you don’t have an influence adapter, you may merely join a USB cable between your laptop port and the USB C port of the Raspberry. Warning! You’ll be able to’t join each a +5V connector right here and a USB C energy port of the Raspberry otherwise you’ll burn the Raspberry board. 

See the schema for the connection reference.

The picture relies on 20171226043249PINOUT-USBTTL-CP2102.pdf ( and File:RaspberryPi 4 Model B.svg – Wikimedia Commons

Relying in your bridge mannequin, you could want an extra driver. I take advantage of this one:

If you join the +5V pin or USB-C energy adapter (once more, by no means each on the identical time!), the Raspberry begins. Now you may open Putty and hook up with your Android. Decide Serial and kind COMX within the serial line definition. X is the variety of your COM port. You’ll be able to test it in your system supervisor – search for “USB to UART bridge (COM4)” or the like. The right connection pace is 115200.

Open the connection to entry the Android shell. By default, Android spawns all logs to the usual output, so it’s best to see a variety of them straight away. Anyway, it’s dual-side communication and you’ve got full terminal entry to your Android if it’s worthwhile to test/modify any file or name any command. Simply strike enter to see the command immediate. You’ll be able to even name ‘su’ to realize superuser entry in your Android operating on Raspberry. 

Connecting by way of adb 

If you wish to use Android Debug Bridge to hook up with your system, utilizing a USB bridge will not be sufficient. When operating ‘adb gadgets’ in your laptop, the Android Automotive OS operating on Raspberry will not be acknowledged. You need to use a putty connection to activate a TCP debug bridge as an alternative. 

Be sure you’ve linked Android and your laptop to the identical community. Open putty and hook up with the operating Android console. Log as root and allow ADB by way of TCP. Then test your IP handle. 

setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
cease adbd
begin adbd
ifconfig wlan0

Now, utilizing your Home windows command line, go to the Android SDK platform-tools listing and hook up with your system. As you may see, the IP handle of mine Raspnberry is

cd {de3f20c92ce224378c09657b28617526652b620c87a49ae1e3163637825b2011}userprofilepercentAppDataLocalAndroidSdkplatform-tools
adb join

If you wish to use ADB in WSL, you may hyperlink the Home windows program in WSL utilizing the next command.

sudo ln -s /mnt/c/Customers/<your_username>/AppData/Native/Android/Sdk/platform-tools/adb.exe /usr/bin/adb

Now you can use ADB to make use of logcat with out putty or to put in purposes with out manually transferring APK information to the SD card. Enjoyable truth – when you use a USB bridge and USB energy provide, you may have two bodily connections between your laptop and the Android-running one, nevertheless, you continue to want to make use of ADB over WiFi to make use of the debug bridge.


That’s all. Android Automotive OS 11 is operating. You’ll be able to set up the apps you want, take them to your automotive, or do no matter you’d like with them.  Utilizing {hardware} as an alternative of an emulator means that you can manually handle partitions (e.g. for the OTA replace) and join exterior gadgets like an actual GPS receiver or accelerometer. The naked steel {hardware} overperforms the emulator too. And most significantly – you may simply take it to your automotive, obtain energy from an in-car USB port, join it to an ODB-II port and run real-life checks with out a laptop computer.